Simple imaging examples are considered to explore the potential advantages of this approach, in particular, toward mainly seeing the object of interest, and not the unknown undesired scatterers. The scope of this paper is limited to homogeneous dielectric objects for which the induced total field distributions in the interrogated objects are similar to the incident field distributions e.
Simple inversion results for focused and non-focused beams are presented accompanied by discussions comparing the achieved reconstructed values.
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The side black objects are the undesired scatterers. The two light blue circles are assumed to be the OI, and the other two side objects red and yellow are the undesired scatterers. This structure then illuminates the OI light green dielectric box and the undesired scatterer dark green dielectric box.
The dielectric slab consists of an OI and two undesired scatterers. The OI is the light green box, and the two undesired scatterers attached to the OI are the dark green boxes. The contrast sources in each configuration have been normalized with respect to the maximum of the incident field at that configuration.
A more detailed view of the capacitive sheet is shown in the inset. Ionic electroactive polymer IEAP actuators that are driven by electrical stimuli have been widely investigated for use in practical applications. However, conventional electrodes in IEAP actuators have a serious drawback of poor durability under long-term actuation in open air, mainly because of leakage of the inner electrolyte and hydrated cations through surface cracks on the metallic electrodes. To overcome this problem, a top priority is developing new high-performance ionic polymer actuators with graphene electrodes that have superior mechanical, electrical conductivity, and electromechanical properties.
However, the task is made difficultby issues such as the low electrical conductivity of graphene G. The percolation network of silver nanowires Ag-NWs is believed to enhance the conductivity of graphene, while poly 3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene: PSS , which exhibits excellent stability under ambient conditions, is expected to improve the actuation performance of IEAP actuators. PSS coating, which prevented oxidation of the surface upon exposure to air, and showedstrong bonding between the ionic polymer and the electrode surface. PSS-coated 5G—4Ag electrode prepared at different spinning speeds: Distributed Optical Fiber Sensors DOFSs , thanks to their multiple sensing points, are ideal tools for the detection of deformations and cracking in reinforced concrete RC structures, crucial as a means to ensure the safety of infrastructures.
Yet, beyond a certain point of most DOFS-monitored experimental tests, researchers have come across unrealistic readings of strain which prevent the extraction of further reliable data. The present paper outlines the results obtained through an experimental test aimed at inducing such anomalies to isolate and identify the physical cause of their origin.
The understanding of such a phenomenon would enable DOFS to become a truly performant strain sensing technique.
The test consists of gradually bending seven steel reinforcement bars with a bonded DOFS under different conditions such as different load types, bonding adhesives, bar sections and more. Further planned research will allow identification of the cause behind the rise of strain-reading anomalies. We analyzed experimentally the noise characteristics of fully integrated CMOS-MEMS resonators to determine the overall thermomechanical noise and its impact on the limit of detection at the system level.
Measurements from four MEMS resonator geometries designed for ultrasensitive detection operating between 2-MHz and 8-MHz monolithically integrated with a low-noise CMOS capacitive readout circuit were analyzed and used to determine the resolution achieved in terms of displacement and capacitance variation. The figure also shows, colored in dark blue, the driver-readout scheme composed by two electrodes for electrostatic actuation and capacitive readout. Both the resonator and CMOS circuitry are fabricated in a 0. The climate chamber and the standalone instruments are remotely controlled.
The operation region, where the gain decreases with the frequency, is highlighted in light orange. Recent paradigm shifts in manufacturing have resulted from the need for a smart manufacturing environment. In this study, we developed a model to detect anomalous signs in advance and embedded it in an existing programmable logic controller system. For this, we investigated the innovation process for smart manufacturing in the domain of synthetic rubber and its vulcanization process, as well as a real-time sensing technology.
The results indicate that only analysis of the pattern of input variables can lead to significant results without the generation of target variables through manual testing of chemical properties. We have also made a practical contribution to the realization of a smart manufacturing environment by building cloud-based infrastructure and models for the pre-detection of defects.
Clua 2 and Luiz M. We propose a versatile method for estimating the RMS error of depth data provided by generic 3D sensors with the capability of generating RGB and depth D data of the scene, i. A common checkerboard is used, the corners are detected and two point clouds are created, one with the real coordinates of the pattern corners and one with the corner coordinates given by the device.
After a registration of these two clouds, the RMS error is computed. Then, using curve fittings methods, an equation is obtained that generalizes the RMS error as a function of the distance between the sensor and the checkerboard pattern. The depth errors estimated by our method are compared to those estimated by state-of-the-art approaches, validating its accuracy and utility. The more yellow the pixels are, the more RMS error exists.
The source point cloud black is captured at 0. Airborne gravimetry from a helicopter has been a feasible tool since the s, with gravimeters mounted on a gyro-stabilised platform. In contrast to fixed-wing aircrafts, the helicopter allows for a higher spatial resolution, since it can move slower and closer to the ground. In August , a strapdown gravimetry test was carried out over the Jakobshavn Glacier in Greenland.
To our knowledge, this was the first time that a strapdown system was used in a helicopter. The strapdown configuration is appealing because it is easily installed and requires no operation during flight. While providing additional information over the thickest part of the glacier, the survey was designed to assess repeatability both within the survey and with respect to profiles flown previously using a gyro-stabilised gravimeter.
The accuracy of the gravity profiles was estimated to 2 mGal and a method for inferring the spatial resolution was investigated, yielding a half-wavelength spatial resolution of 4. This article belongs to the Section Remote Sensors.
Coordinates are with respect to UTM zone The spectrum is also shown for the over-smoothed estimates and the estimated spatial resolutions are indicated by vertical lines. A novel elastic body design idea of six-axis wrist force sensor with a floating beam was raised based on the analysis of the robot six-axis wrist force sensor with a floating beam. First, the design ideas were described in detail, which were analyzed by mechanical modeling and were verified by finite element analysis. Second, the static simulation analysis of the novel elastomer of sensor was carried out.
According to the strain distribution performance, the position of the strain gauges pasted and the connection mode of the full-bridge circuits were decided, which can achieve theoretical decoupling. Finally, the comparison between the static and dynamic performance of the novel sensor and the original sensor with floating beams was done.
The results show that the static and dynamic performance of the novel six-axis wrist sensor are all better than the original sensor. Behavior analysis through posture recognition is an essential research in robotic systems. Sitting with unhealthy sitting posture for a long time seriously harms human health and may even lead to lumbar disease, cervical disease and myopia.
Automatic vision-based detection of unhealthy sitting posture, as an example of posture detection in robotic systems, has become a hot research topic. However, the existing methods only focus on extracting features of human themselves and lack understanding relevancies among objects in the scene, and henceforth fail to recognize some types of unhealthy sitting postures in complicated environments. To alleviate these problems, a scene recognition and semantic analysis approach to unhealthy sitting posture detection in screen-reading is proposed in this paper.
The key skeletal points of human body are detected and tracked with a Microsoft Kinect sensor. Meanwhile, a deep learning method, Faster R-CNN, is used in the scene recognition of our method to accurately detect objects and extract relevant features.
Recorded in by Kenneth Wilkinson at Kingsway Hall. You can also change the view style at any point from the main header when using the pages with your mobile device. The purpose of the investigation was to evaluate the stability of subsurface foundation, and the possible positions of mined-out zones to prevent the further rolling of the jade body. In this paper we review FBG strain sensors with high focus on the underlying physical principles, the interrogation, and the read-out techniques. When being represented onto those dictionaries, the background often exhibits a block-diagonal structure, while the anomalous target shows a sparse structure.
Then our method performs semantic analysis through Gaussian-Mixture behavioral clustering for scene understanding. The relevant features in the scene and the skeletal features extracted from human are fused into the semantic features to discriminate various types of sitting postures. Experimental results demonstrated that our method accurately and effectively detected various types of unhealthy sitting postures in screen-reading and avoided error detection in complicated environments.
Compared with the existing methods, our proposed method detected more types of unhealthy sitting postures including those that the existing methods could not detect. Our method can be potentially applied and integrated as a medical assistance in robotic systems of health care and treatment. The framework is divided into two parts, i. A is extracted from human skeleton joints. B is extracted from person and screen. C is extracted from person and chair. D is extracted from chair and screen.
A correlation characteristic has significant potential advantages for the development of efficient communication protocols in wireless sensor networks WSNs. To exploit the correlation in WSNs, the correlation model is required. However, most of the present correlation models are linear and distance-dependent. This paper proposes a general distance-independent entropy correlation model based on the relation between joint entropy and the number of members in a group. This relation is estimated using entropy of individual members and entropy correlation coefficients of member pairs.
The proposed model is then applied to evaluate two data aggregation schemes in WSNs including data compression and representative schemes. In the data compression scheme, some main routing strategies are compared and evaluated to find the most appropriate strategy. In the representative scheme, with the desired distortion requirement, a method to calculate the number of representative nodes and the selection of these nodes are proposed.
The practical validations showed the effectiveness of the proposed correlation model and data reduction schemes. This article belongs to the Section Sensor Networks. Dyadic interactions are ubiquitous in our lives, yet they are highly challenging to study. Many subtle aspects of coupled bodily dynamics continuously unfolding during such exchanges have not been empirically parameterized. Such cohesive motion patterns self-emerge and dissolve largely beneath the awareness of the actors and the observers.
Consequently, hand coding methods may miss latent aspects of the phenomena. The present paper addresses this gap and provides new methods to quantify the moment-by-moment evolution of self-emerging cohesiveness during highly complex ballet routines. We introduce new visualization tools, signal parameterizations, and a statistical platform that integrates connectivity metrics with stochastic analyses to automatically detect coordination patterns and self-emerging cohesive coupling as they unfold in real-time.
Potential applications of these new techniques are discussed in the context of personalized medicine, basic research, and the performing arts. Wireless channel propagation characteristics and models are important to ensure the communication quality of wireless sensor networks in agriculture. Wireless channel attenuation experiments were carried out at different node antenna heights 0.
We studied the path loss variation trends at different transmission distances and analyzed the differences between estimated values and measured values of path loss in a free space model and a two-ray model. Regression analysis of measured path loss values was used to establish a one-slope log-distance model and propose a modified two-slope log-distance model. The attenuation speed in wireless channel propagation in rice fields intensified with rice developmental stage and the transmission range had monotone increases with changes in antenna height.
The relative error RE of estimation in the free space model and the two-ray model under four heights ranged from 6. The ranges of estimated RE for the one-slope and modified two-slope log-distance models during the three rice developmental stages were 2. The one-slope and modified two-slope log-distance model had better applicability for modeling of wireless channels in rice fields. This validates that the modified two-slope log-distance model had better applicability in a rice field environment than the other models. These data provide a basis for modeling of sensor network channels and construction of wireless sensor networks in rice fields.
Our results will aid in the design of effective rice field WSNs and increase the transmission quality in rice field sensor networks. Fibre Bragg grating FBG strain sensors are not only a very well-established research field, but they are also acquiring a bigger market share due to their sensitivity and low costs. In this paper we review FBG strain sensors with high focus on the underlying physical principles, the interrogation, and the read-out techniques.
Particular emphasis is given to recent advances in highly-performing, single head FBG, a category FBG strain sensors belong to. Different sensing schemes are described, including FBG strain sensors based on mode splitting. Their operation principle and performance are reported and compared with the conventional architectures. In conclusion, some advanced applications and key sectors the global fibre-optic strain sensors market are envisaged, as well as the main market players acting in this field.
In insets, the spectrum of the incident, reflected and transmitted beams. King Jade, which is deemed the largest jade body of the world, was broken out from a hill. The local government planned to build a tourism site based on the jade culture there.
The purpose of the investigation was to evaluate the stability of subsurface foundation, and the possible positions of mined-out zones to prevent the further rolling of the jade body. Cross-hole radar tomography is the key technique in the investigation.
Conventional travel time and attenuation tomography based on ray tracing theory cannot provide high-resolution images because only a fraction of the measured information is used in the inversion. Full-waveform inversion FWI can provide high-resolution permittivity and conductivity images because it utilizes all the information provided by the radar signals. We deduce the gradient expression of the time-domain FWI with respect to the permittivity and conductivity using a method that is different from that of the previous work and realize the FWI algorithm that can simultaneously update the permittivity and conductivity by using the conjugate gradient method.
Inverted results from synthetic data show that time-domain FWI can significantly improve the resolution compared with the ray-based tomogram methods. FWI can distinguish targets that are as small as one-half to one-third wavelength and the inverted physical values are closer to the real ones than those provided by the ray tracing method. We use the FWI algorithm to the field data measured at Xiuyan jade mine. Both the inverted permittivity and conductivity can comparably delineate four mined-out zones, which exhibit low-permittivity and low-conductivity characteristics. Furthermore, the locations of the interpreted mined-out zones are in good agreement with the existing mining channels recorded by geological data.
The giant jade is at the center of the photo. Amplitudes in all panels are normalized with respect to the maximum amplitude of the field data. Sensitive detection of volatile organic compounds VOCs is significant for environmental monitoring and medical applications. With the micro-fabricated IDE structure, the sensor can be easily built into an electric nose for VOC recognition and measurement. The paper presents an ultra-high-speed image sensor for motion pictures of reproducible events emitting very weak light.
The sensor is backside-illuminated. Recorded in Rating: Columbia MS , Also in the 4 LP-Box: RDA 29, reisuued in Richard Mohr, Recording engineer: Lewis Layton recorded at OHC in , Toccata from the symphonie Concertante, Organist: Direct to Disc recording in by Bert Whyte. TAS list is the origianl issue: No SXL issue Rating: Larry Alexander Rating: World Premiere Complete Recording. Recorded by Arthur Lilly, Recorded in by Kenneth Wilkinson at Kingsway Hall. Recorded by Colin Moorfoot at Kingsway Hall in Andre Previn-London Symphony Orchestra.