In , the Gododdin stronghold was besieged by forces loyal to King Oswald of Northumbria , and around this time control of Lothian passed to the Angles. Their influence continued for the next three centuries until around , when, during the reign of Indulf , son of Constantine II , the "burh" fortress , named in the 10th-century Pictish Chronicle as oppidum Eden ,  was abandoned to the Scots. It thenceforth remained under their jurisdiction. The royal burgh was founded by King David I in the early 12th century on land belonging to the Crown, though the date of its charter is unknown.
In , King James VI of Scotland succeeded to the English throne, uniting the crowns of Scotland and England in a personal union known as the Union of the Crowns , though Scotland remained, in all other respects, a separate kingdom. In the 17th century, Edinburgh's boundaries were still defined by the city's defensive town walls. As a result, the city's growing population was accommodated by increasing the height of the houses.
Buildings of 11 storeys or more were common,  and have been described as forerunners of the modern-day skyscraper. Following the Treaty of Union in , the Parliaments of England and Scotland passed Acts of Union in and respectively, uniting the two kingdoms in the Kingdom of Great Britain effective from 1 May The Union was opposed by many Scots, resulting in riots in the city. By the first half of the 18th century, despite rising prosperity evidenced by its growing importance as a banking centre, Edinburgh was described as one of Europe's most densely populated, overcrowded and unsanitary towns.
During the Jacobite rising of , Edinburgh was briefly occupied by the Jacobite "Highland Army" before its march into England. In the second half of the century, the city was at the heart of the Scottish Enlightenment ,  when thinkers like David Hume , Adam Smith , James Hutton and Joseph Black were familiar figures in its streets. Edinburgh became a major intellectual centre, earning it the nickname "Athens of the North" because of its many neo-classical buildings and reputation for learning, recalling ancient Athens.
From the s onwards, the professional and business classes gradually deserted the Old Town in favour of the more elegant "one-family" residences of the New Town, a migration that changed the city's social character. According to the foremost historian of this development, "Unity of social feeling was one of the most valuable heritages of old Edinburgh, and its disappearance was widely and properly lamented. Although Edinburgh's traditional industries of printing, brewing and distilling continued to grow in the 19th century, and were joined by new rubber works and engineering works , there was little industrialisation compared with other cities in Britain.
By , Edinburgh had been overtaken by Glasgow as Scotland's largest city. The Old Town became an increasingly dilapidated, overcrowded slum with high mortality rates. University building developments which transformed the George Square and Potterrow areas proved highly controversial. Since the s a new "financial district", including the Edinburgh International Conference Centre , has grown mainly on demolished railway property to the west of the castle, stretching into Fountainbridge , a run-down 19th-century industrial suburb which has undergone radical change since the s with the demise of industrial and brewery premises.
This ongoing development has enabled Edinburgh to maintain its place as the United Kingdom's second largest financial and administrative centre after London. In , the Scotland Act , which came into force the following year, established a devolved Scottish Parliament and Scottish Executive renamed the Scottish Government since September . Both based in Edinburgh, they are responsible for governing Scotland while reserved matters such as defence, taxation and foreign affairs remain the responsibility of the Parliament of the United Kingdom in London.
Occupying a narrow gap between the Firth of Forth to the north and the Pentland Hills and their outrunners to the south, the city sprawls over a landscape which is the product of early volcanic activity and later periods of intensive glaciation. These features, along with another hollow on the rock's south side, formed an ideal natural strongpoint upon which Edinburgh Castle was built.
Other prominent landforms such as Calton Hill and Corstorphine Hill are also products of glacial erosion. The Water of Leith Walkway is a mixed use trail that follows the course of the river for Excepting the shoreline of the Firth of Forth, Edinburgh is encircled by a green belt , designated in , which stretches from Dalmeny in the west to Prestongrange in the east.
Examples of these independent wedges of green belt include Holyrood Park and Corstorphine Hill. Edinburgh comprises distinct areas that retain much of their original character as settlements in existence before they were absorbed into the sprawling city of the nineteenth century. The historic centre of Edinburgh is divided in two by the broad green swathe of Princes Street Gardens.
To the south the view is dominated by Edinburgh Castle , built high on Castle Rock, and the long sweep of the Old Town descending towards Holyrood Palace. To the north lie Princes Street and the New Town. The West End includes the financial district, with insurance and banking offices as well as the Edinburgh International Conference Centre. There are over 4, listed buildings within the city,  a higher proportion relative to area than any other city in the United Kingdom. The Royal Mile runs downhill and terminates at Holyrood Palace.
Minor streets called closes or wynds lie on either side of the main spine forming a herringbone pattern. Other places of historical interest nearby are Greyfriars Kirkyard and the Grassmarket. The street layout is typical of the old quarters of many northern European cities. The castle perches on top of a rocky crag the remnant of an extinct volcano and the Royal Mile runs down the crest of a ridge from it. Due to space restrictions imposed by the narrowness of this landform, the Old Town became home to some of the earliest "high rise" residential buildings. Multi-storey dwellings known as lands were the norm from the 16th century onwards with ten and eleven storeys being typical and one even reaching fourteen or fifteen storeys.
The New Town was an 18th-century solution to the problem of an increasingly crowded city which had been confined to the ridge sloping down from the castle. In a competition to design a "New Town" was won by James Craig , a year-old architect. The principal street was to be George Street , running along the natural ridge to the north of what became known as the "Old Town". To either side of it are two other main streets: Princes Street and Queen Street. Princes Street has become Edinburgh's main shopping street and now has few of its Georgian buildings in their original state.
The three main streets are connected by a series of streets running perpendicular to them. The latter, designed by Robert Adam , influenced the architectural style of the New Town into the early 19th century. The hollow between the Old and New Towns was formerly the Nor Loch , which was created for the town's defence but came to be used by the inhabitants for dumping their sewage. It was drained by the s as part of the city's northward expansion.
Craig's original plan included an ornamental canal on the site of the loch,  but this idea was abandoned.
In the middle of the 19th century the National Gallery of Scotland and Royal Scottish Academy Building were built on the Mound, and tunnels for the railway line between Haymarket and Waverley stations were driven through it. The Southside is a popular residential part of the city, which includes the districts of St Leonards, Marchmont , Morningside , Newington , Sciennes , the Grange and Blackford. The Southside is broadly analogous to the area covered formerly by the Burgh Muir , and grew in popularity as a residential area after the opening of the South Bridge in the s.
The Southside is particularly popular with families many state and private schools are here , young professionals and students the central University of Edinburgh campus is based around George Square just north of Marchmont and the Meadows , and Napier University with major campuses around Merchiston and Morningside. The area is also well provided with hotel and "bed and breakfast" accommodation for visiting festival-goers. These districts often feature in works of fiction. Leith was historically the port of Edinburgh, an arrangement of unknown date that was confirmed by the royal charter Robert the Bruce granted to the city in The loss of traditional industries and commerce the last shipyard closed in resulted in economic decline.
With the redevelopment, Edinburgh has gained the business of cruise liner companies which now provide cruises to Norway, Sweden, Denmark, Germany, and the Netherlands. There are rowing and sailing clubs and a restored Victorian swimming pool, including Turkish baths. The urban area of Edinburgh is almost entirely within the City of Edinburgh Council boundary, merging with Musselburgh in East Lothian.
Like most of Scotland, Edinburgh has a temperate , maritime climate which is relatively mild despite its northerly latitude. The city's proximity to the sea mitigates any large variations in temperature or extremes of climate. Given Edinburgh's position between the coast and hills, it is renowned as "the windy city", with the prevailing wind direction coming from the south west, which is often associated with warm, unstable air from the North Atlantic Current that can give rise to rainfall — although considerably less than cities to the west, such as Glasgow.
Vigorous Atlantic depressions, known as European windstorms , can affect the city between October and May. There is also a weather station in Gogarbank on the city's outskirts. The most recent official population estimates are , for the Edinburgh Locality  and , for the local authority area. Edinburgh has a high proportion of young adults, with The proportion of people born outside the UK was Countries accounting for the largest number of Edinburgh citizens born overseas are: Some 13, people or 2. Of the Non-White population, the largest group by far are Asian, totalling 26, people.
Within the Asian population, the Chinese are now the largest sub-group, with 8, people, amounting to about 1. The city's Indian population amounts to 6, 1. Although they account for only 1, people or 0. Over 7, people were born in African countries 1. With the notable exception of Inner London, Edinburgh has a higher number of people born in the United States over 3, than any other city in the UK. A census by the Edinburgh presbytery in recorded a population of 8, adults spread equally north and south of the High Street which runs along the spine of the ridge sloping down from the Castle.
The construction of the New Town from onwards witnessed the migration of the professional and business classes from the difficult living conditions in the Old Town to the lower density, higher quality surroundings taking shape on land to the north. Early 20th century population growth coincided with lower-density suburban development. As the city expanded to the south and west, detached and semi-detached villas with large gardens replaced tenements as the predominant building style.
From the early to mid 20th century the growth in population, together with slum clearance in the Old Town and other areas, such as Dumbiedykes , Leith , and Fountainbridge , led to the creation of new estates such as Stenhouse and Saughton , Craigmillar and Niddrie , Pilton and Muirhouse , Piershill , and Sighthill. The Church of Scotland claims the largest membership of any single religious denomination in Edinburgh. In there were 83 congregations in the Presbytery of Edinburgh. Construction was largely financed by a gift from King Fahd of Saudi Arabia  and was completed in A Liberal Jewish congregation also meets in the city.
In the 19th century, Edinburgh's economy was known for banking, publishing and brewing. Today, its economy is based mainly on financial services, scientific research, higher education, and tourism. Banking has been a mainstay of the Edinburgh economy for over years, since the Bank of Scotland now part of the Lloyds Banking Group was established by an act of the Scottish Parliament in Today, the financial services industry, with its particularly strong insurance and investment sectors, and underpinned by Edinburgh-based firms such as Scottish Widows and Standard Life , accounts for the city being the UK's second financial centre after London and Europe's fourth in terms of equity assets.
Tourism is also an important element in the city's economy. Their numbers are augmented in August each year during the Edinburgh Festivals , which attracts 4. As the centre of Scotland's government and legal system , the public sector plays a central role in Edinburgh's economy. Many departments of the Scottish Government are in the city. Other major employers include NHS Scotland and local government administration. The city hosts a series of festivals that run between the end of July and early September each year. The longest established of these festivals is the Edinburgh International Festival, which was first held in  and consists mainly of a programme of high-profile theatre productions and classical music performances, featuring international directors, conductors, theatre companies and orchestras.
This has since been overtaken both in size and popularity by the Edinburgh Fringe which began as a programme of marginal acts alongside the "official" Festival and has become the world's largest performing arts festival. In , nearly different shows were staged in venues across the city. Performances end with a short fireworks display. As well as the various summer festivals, many other festivals are held during the rest of the year, including the Edinburgh International Film Festival  and Edinburgh International Science Festival.
Since , it has been officially organised with the focus moved to Princes Street. In , over , people attended, leading to ticketing of the main street party in later years up to a limit of , tickets. The event attracts thousands of people from all over the world. On the night of 30 April the Beltane Fire Festival takes place on Calton Hill , involving a procession followed by scenes inspired by pagan old spring fertility celebrations. Outside the Festival season, Edinburgh supports several theatres and production companies.
The Traverse Theatre presents a more contemporary repertoire. The Usher Hall is Edinburgh's premier venue for classical music, as well as occasional popular music concerts. The Scottish Chamber Orchestra is based in Edinburgh. Edinburgh has two repertory cinemas, the Edinburgh Filmhouse and The Cameo , as well as the independent Dominion Cinema and a range of multiplexes.
Edinburgh has a healthy popular music scene. Occasionally large concerts are staged at Murrayfield and Meadowbank , while mid-sized events take place at smaller venues such as the Corn Exchange, the Liquid Rooms and the Bongo Club. Johnston Press owns the title and The Scotsman ; their corporate headquarters are in Edinburgh and their national newspaper is the only one published in the city. The city has two commercial radio stations: Forth 1 , a station which broadcasts mainstream chart music, and Forth 2 on medium wave which plays classic hits.
DAB digital radio is broadcast over two local multiplexes. Edinburgh has many museums and libraries. The Museum on the Mound has exhibits on money and banking. Edinburgh is also home to The Royal Yacht Britannia , decommissioned in and now a five-star visitor attraction and evening events venue permanently berthed at Ocean Terminal. Edinburgh contains Scotland's five National Galleries of Art as well as numerous smaller art galleries.
Contemporary collections are shown in the Scottish National Gallery of Modern Art which occupies a split site at Belford. Across the road, The Fruitmarket Gallery offers world class exhibitions of contemporary art, featuring work by British and international artists with both emerging and established international reputations. There are many small private galleries, including the Ingleby Gallery.
The city hosts several of Scotland's galleries and organisations dedicated to contemporary visual art. Significant strands of this infrastructure include: James Centre at the east end of Princes Street is currently being redeveloped, however the John Lewis store remains open. James Centre, is a recent addition to the central shopping district, dominated by the presence of Harvey Nichols.
Edinburgh also has substantial retail parks outside the city centre. Following local government reorganisation in , The City of Edinburgh Council constitutes one of the 32 council areas of Scotland. The City of Edinburgh Council election, , saw a continuation of this administration, but with the SNP as the largest party.
The city's coat of arms was registered by the Lord Lyon King of Arms in Edinburgh, like all of Scotland, is represented in the Scottish Parliament. For electoral purposes, the city is divided into six constituencies which, along with 3 seats outside of the city, form part of the Lothian region. Edinburgh Airport is Scotland's busiest and biggest airport and the principal international gateway to the capital, handling over 12 million passengers in Travel in Edinburgh is undertaken predominantly by bus.
Lothian Buses operate the majority of city bus services within the city and to surrounding suburbs, with the most routes running via Princes Street. Lothian Buses, as the successor company to the Edinburgh Corporation Transport Department, also operates all of the city's branded public tour buses , night bus service and airport bus link. Edinburgh Waverley is the second-busiest railway station in Scotland, with only Glasgow Central handling more passengers.
On the evidence of passenger entries and exits between April and March , Edinburgh Waverley is the fifth-busiest station outside London; it is also the UK's second biggest station in terms of the number of platforms and area size. To the west of the city centre lies Haymarket Station which is an important commuter stop. Opened in , Edinburgh Park station serves the Gyle business park in the west of the city and the nearby Gogarburn headquarters of the Royal Bank of Scotland.
The Edinburgh Crossrail route connects Edinburgh Park with Haymarket, Edinburgh Waverley and the suburban stations of Brunstane and Newcraighall in the east of the city. To tackle traffic congestion , Edinburgh is now served by six park and ride sites on the periphery of the city at Sheriffhall in Midlothian , Ingliston , Riccarton , Inverkeithing in Fife , Newcraighall and Straiton in Midlothian.
A referendum of Edinburgh residents in February rejected a proposal to introduce congestion charging in the city. Edinburgh Trams became operational on 31 May The city had been without a tram system since Edinburgh Corporation Tramways ceased on 16 November With a reputation as an established financial services centre, coupled with comprehensive support services, Glasgow continues to attract and grow new business. Scottish Qualifications Authority and Scottish Enterprise also have their headquarters in the district.
Hilton have a corporate office based in the area. The area is popular with tourists, and contains many hotels. The name is also increasingly being used to refer to any area to the west of Charing Cross. This includes areas such as Scotstoun , Jordanhill , Kelvindale and Anniesland. The spire of Sir George Gilbert Scott 's Glasgow University main building the second largest Gothic Revival building in Great Britain is a major landmark, and can be seen from miles around, sitting atop Gilmorehill.
The university itself is the fourth oldest in the English-speaking world. Much of the city's student population is based in the West End, adding to its cultural vibrancy.
Adjacent to the Kelvin Hall was the Museum of Transport , which reopened in after moving to a new location on a former dockland site at Glasgow Harbour where the River Kelvin flows into the Clyde. The new building is built to a design by Zaha Hadid. Many of the original sandstone tenements remain in this district. A notable local employer continues to be the Wellpark Brewery , home of Tennent's Lager. The Glasgow Necropolis Cemetery was created by the Merchants House on a hill above the cathedral in There are two late 18th century tenements in Gallowgate.
Dating from and , both have been well restored. The construction of Charlotte Street was financed by David Dale , whose former pretensions can be gauged by the one remaining house, now run by the National Trust for Scotland.
Photo by Remi Mathis. Johnston Press owns the title and The Scotsman ; their corporate headquarters are in Edinburgh and their national newspaper is the only one published in the city. Retrieved 6 November At Westminster, it is represented by seven members of parliament MPs , all elected at least once every five years to represent individual constituencies, using the first-past-the-post system of voting. Transactions of the Glasgow Archaeological Society Volume 2 ed. Glasgow's population influx in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries was related to economic expansion as well as internally generated growth with the vast majority of newcomers to the city from outside Scotland being from Ireland , especially the north western counties of Donegal , Fermanagh , Tyrone and Derry.
Once a school, it has been converted into offices. Surrounding these buildings are a series of innovative housing developments conceived as "Homes for the Future", part of a project during the city's year as UK City of Architecture and Design in East of Glasgow Cross is St Andrew's in the Square , the oldest post-Reformation church in Scotland, built in — and displaying a Presbyterian grandeur befitting the church of the city's wealthy tobacco merchants.
The Episcopalian St Andrew's was also known as the "Whistlin' Kirk" due to it being the first church after the Reformation to own an organ. The extensive Tollcross Park was originally developed from the estate of James Dunlop, the owner of a local steelworks.
His large baronial mansion was built in by David Bryce , which later housed the city's Children's Museum until the s. Today, the mansion is a sheltered housing complex. The area was the site of the Athletes' Village for the Commonwealth Games , located adjacent to the new indoor sports arena. To the north of the East End lie the two massive gasometers of Provan Gas Works , which stand overlooking Alexandra Park and a major interchange between the M8 and M80 motorways.
Often used for displaying large city advertising slogans, the towers have become an unofficial portal into the city for road users arriving from the north and east. Now called the Glasgow Club Crownpoint Sports Complex , the centre provides service such as sports facilities, health advice, stress management, leisure and vocational classes. Glasgow's South Side sprawls out south of the Clyde. The urban area includes some of Greater Glasgow's most affluent suburbs such as Newton Mearns , Whitecraigs , Clarkston , Giffnock and Thorntonhall , all of which are outside the city boundaries in East Renfrewshire.
Newlands and Dumbreck are examples of high-value residential districts within the city boundaries. There are many areas containing a high concentration of sandstone tenements, examples being Battlefield , Govanhill , Mount Florida and Shawlands. The large suburb of Pollokshields comprises both a quiet western part with undulating tree-lined boulevards lined with expensive villas, and a busier eastern part with a high-density grid of tenements and small shops. The south side also includes some post-war housing estates of various sizes such as Toryglen , Pollok , Castlemilk and Arden.
The towns of Cambuslang and Rutherglen were included in the City of Glasgow district from to , but are now in the South Lanarkshire council area. In addition, several new bridges spanning the River Clyde have been built or are currently planned, including the Clyde Arc known by locals as the Squinty Bridge at Pacific Quay and others at Tradeston and Springfield Quay.
Govan is a district and former burgh in the south-western part of the city. It is situated on the south bank of the River Clyde, opposite Partick. It was an administratively independent Police Burgh from until it was incorporated into the expanding city of Glasgow in Govan has a legacy as an engineering and shipbuilding centre of international repute and is home to one of two BAE Systems Surface Ships shipyards on the River Clyde and the precision engineering firm, Thales Optronics.
It is also home to the Queen Elizabeth University Hospital , one of the largest hospitals in the country, and the maintenance depot for the Glasgow Subway system. North Glasgow extends out from the north of the city centre towards the affluent suburbs of Bearsden , Milngavie and Bishopbriggs in East Dunbartonshire and Clydebank in West Dunbartonshire. The area also contains some of the city's poorest residential areas. Possilpark is one such district, where levels of unemployment and drug abuse continue to be above the national average.
Much of the housing in areas such as Possilpark and Hamiltonhill have fallen into a state of disrepair in recent years. This has led to large scale redevelopment of much of the poorer housing stock in north Glasgow, and the wider regeneration of many areas, such as Ruchill , which have been transformed; many run-down tenements have now been refurbished or replaced by modern housing estates. Much of the housing stock in north Glasgow is rented social housing , with a high proportion of high-rise tower blocks, managed by the North Glasgow Housing Association trading as NG Homes and Glasgow Housing Association.
Maryhill consists of well maintained traditional sandstone tenements. Although historically a working class area, its borders with the upmarket West End of the city mean that it is relatively wealthy compared to the rest of the north of the city, containing affluent areas such as Maryhill Park and North Kelvinside. The junior team, Maryhill F. The Forth and Clyde Canal passes through this part of the city, and at one stage formed a vital part of the local economy.
It was for many years polluted and largely unused after the decline of heavy industry, but recent efforts to regenerate and re-open the canal to navigation have seen it rejuvenated. Sighthill was home to Scotland's largest asylum seeker community but the area is now regenerated as part of the Youth Olympic Games bid. A huge part of the economic life of Glasgow was once located in Springburn , where the Saracen Foundry , engineering works of firms like Charles Tennant and locomotive workshops employed many Glaswegians.
It was home to the headquarters of the North British Locomotive Company. Today part of the St. Rollox railway works continues in use as a railway maintenance facility, all that is left of the industry in Springburn. The city has many amenities for a wide range of cultural activities, from curling to opera and ballet and from football to art appreciation; it also has a large selection of museums that include those devoted to transport, religion, and modern art.
Many of the city's cultural sites were celebrated in when Glasgow was designated European City of Culture. The city's principal municipal library, the Mitchell Library , has grown into one of the largest public reference libraries in Europe, currently housing some 1. Glasgow has its own " Poet Laureate ", a post created in for Edwin Morgan  and occupied by Liz Lochhead from  until , when she stood down to take up the position of Scots Makar. Most of the museums and galleries in Glasgow are publicly owned and free to enter.
In addition, unlike the older and larger Edinburgh Festival where all Edinburgh's main festivals occur in the last three weeks of August , Glasgow's festivals fill the calendar.
Glasgow has many live music venues, pubs, and clubs. More recent mid-sized venues include ABC and the O 2 Academy , which play host to a similar range of acts. There are also a large number of smaller venues and bars, which host many local and touring musicians, including Stereo, 13th Note and Nice N Sleazy. In recent years [ when? Glasgow's contemporary dance music scene has been spearheaded by Slam , and their record label Soma Quality Recordings ,  with their Pressure club nights attracting DJs and clubbers from around the world, which was previously held at The Arches but following that venue's closure due to claims of unsafe level of drug use has moved to Sub Club.
There have been hundreds of films made about Glasgow or in Glasgow. Television programs filmed in Glasgow include Rab C. Most recently the long-running series Question Time and the early evening quiz programme Eggheads moved its production base to the city. Most National Lottery game shows are also filmed in Glasgow. Scottish editions of Trinity Mirror and News International titles are printed in the city. STV Group is a Glasgow-based media conglomerate with interests in television, and publishing advertising.
Various radio stations are also located in Glasgow. Bauer Radio owns the principal commercial radio stations in Glasgow: Clyde 1 and Clyde 2 , which can reach over 2.
Other stations broadcasting from Glasgow include Glasgow is a city of significant religious diversity. There are congregations in the Church of Scotland's Presbytery of Glasgow of which are within the city boundaries, the other 43 being in adjacent areas such as Giffnock.
The large division between the two religions and its respective communities play a major part in sectarianism in Glasgow , in a similar nature to that of Northern Ireland. Biblical unitarians are represented by three Christadelphian ecclesias, referred to geographically, as "South",  "Central"  and "Kelvin". The Sikh community is served by 4 Gurdwaras. In , Scotland's first purpose-built Gurdwara opened in a massive opening ceremony. There are almost 10, Sikhs in Scotland and the majority live in Glasgow.
Glasgow Central Mosque in the Gorbals district is the largest mosque in Scotland and, along with twelve other mosques in the city, caters for the city's Muslim population, estimated to number 33, Glasgow has seven synagogues with the seventh largest Jewish population in the United Kingdom after London , Manchester , Leeds , Gateshead , Brighton and Bournemouth , but once had a Jewish population second only to London, estimated at 20, in the Gorbals alone.
It is believed to be the only public museum to examine all the world's major religious faiths. Glaswegian , otherwise known as the Glasgow patter , is a local variety of Scots. Glaswegian is a dialect, more than an alternative pronunciation; words also change their meaning depending on context, e. Ginger is a term for any carbonated soft drink, historically referring to ginger beer A bottle o ginger , IPA: Then there are words whose meaning has no obvious relationship to that in standard English: A headbutt is known in many parts of the British Isles as a "Glasgow kiss", although this term is rarely used by Glaswegians, who say "Malkie", e.
A speaker of Glaswegian might refer to those originating from the Scottish Highlands and the Western Isles as teuchters , while they would reciprocate by referring to Glaswegians as keelies. More recently, the word weegie has become more widely used to describe Glaswegians. Glasgow is Scotland's main locus of Gaelic language use outside the Highlands and Islands. In , 5, residents of the city over age 3 spoke Gaelic, amounting to 1.
Of Scotland's 25 largest cities, only Inverness , the unofficial capital of the Highlands , has a larger percentage of Gaelic speakers. Very little of medieval Glasgow remains; the two main landmarks from this period being the 15th century Provand's Lordship and 13th century St. Mungo's Cathedral , although the original medieval street plan along with many of the street names on the eastern side of the city centre has largely survived intact. The vast majority of the city as seen today dates from the 19th century. As a result, Glasgow has an impressive heritage of Victorian architecture: Simpson , are notable examples.
The city is notable for architecture designed by the Glasgow School , the most notable exponent of that style being Charles Rennie Mackintosh. A hidden gem of Glasgow, also designed by Mackintosh, is the Queen's Cross Church , the only church by the renowned artist to be built. Another architect who has had an enduring impact on the city's appearance was Alexander Thomson , with notable examples including the Holmwood House villa, and likewise Sir John James Burnet who was awarded the R.
A's Royal Gold Medal for his lifetime's service to architecture. The buildings reflect the wealth and self-confidence of the residents of the "Second City of the Empire". Glasgow generated immense wealth from trade and the industries that developed from the Industrial Revolution. The shipyards , marine engineering , steel making, and heavy industry all contributed to the growth of the city. Many of the city's most impressive buildings were built with red or blond sandstone , but during the industrial era those colours disappeared under a pervasive black layer of soot and pollutants from the furnaces , until the Clean Air Act was introduced in In recent years many of these buildings have been cleaned and restored to their original appearance.
In Zaha Hadid won a competition to design the new Museum of Transport. Glasgow's impressive historical and modern architectural traditions were celebrated in when the city was designated UK City of Architecture and Design,  winning the accolade over Liverpool and Edinburgh. Glasgow has the largest economy in Scotland and is at the hub of the metropolitan area of West Central Scotland.
Glasgow was once one of the most significant cities in the UK for manufacturing, which generated a great deal of the city's wealth; the most prominent industry being shipbuilding based on the River Clyde. Whilst manufacturing has declined, Glasgow's economy has seen significant relative growth of tertiary sector industries such as financial and business services, communications, biosciences , creative industries, healthcare, higher education, retail and tourism. The s and first decade of the 21st century saw substantial growth in the number of call centres based in Glasgow. In roughly 20, people, a third of all call centre employees in Scotland, were employed by Glasgow call centres.
The city's main manufacturing industries include companies involved in; shipbuilding, engineering, construction, brewing and distilling, printing and publishing, chemicals and textiles as well as newer growth sectors such as optoelectronics , software development and biotechnology.
The city has many bus services; since bus deregulation almost all are provided by private operators though SPT part-funds some services. The principal bus operators within the city are: The main bus terminal in the city is Buchanan bus station. Glasgow has the most extensive urban rail network in the UK outside London with rail services travelling to a large part of the West of Scotland. Most lines were electrified under British Rail. All trains running within Scotland, including the local Glasgow trains, are operated by Abellio ScotRail , who own the franchise as determined by the Scottish Government.
Central station and Queen Street station are the two main railway terminals. Glasgow Central is the terminus of the All services to and from England use this station. Glasgow Central is also the terminus for suburban services on the south side of Glasgow, Ayrshire and Inverclyde, as well as being served by the cross city link from Dalmuir to Motherwell.
The city's suburban network is currently divided by the River Clyde, and the Crossrail Glasgow initiative has been proposed to link them; it is currently awaiting funding from the Scottish Government. The city is linked to Edinburgh by four direct railway links. The Subway is the United Kingdom's only completely underground metro system, and is generally recognised as the world's third underground railway after the London Underground and the Budapest Metro.
Ferries used to link opposite sides of the Clyde in Glasgow but they have been rendered near-obsolete, by bridges and tunnels including the Erskine Bridge , Kingston Bridge , and the Clyde Tunnel. The PS Waverley , the world's last operational seagoing paddle-steamer ,  provides services from Glasgow city Centre, mainly catering to the pleasure cruise market. A regular waterbus service links the city Centre with Braehead in Renfrewshire, some 30 minutes downstream. A service by Loch Lomond Seaplanes , connecting the city with destinations in Argyll and Bute started in Since the advent of Containerisation , most other facilities, such as Hunterston Terminal are located in the deep waters of the Firth of Clyde , which together handle some 7.
Longer distant commercial sea shipping from Glasgow occurs regularly to many European destinations including Mediterranean and Baltic ports via passage through the Sea of the Hebrides. The main M8 motorway passes through the city centre and connects to the M77 , M73 , and M80 motorways. The A82 connects the city to Argyll and the western Highlands. The M74 runs directly south towards Carlisle ; the M74 completion scheme has extended the motorway from Tollcross into the Tradeston area to join the M8. Other road projects in the city include East End Regeneration Route , which aims to provide easier access to deprived areas of the East End by linking the M8 to the extended M This is the busiest bridge in Europe.
The city has three international airports within 45 minutes travel of the city centre, as well as a centrally-located seaplane terminal. Two are dedicated to Glasgow while the third is Edinburgh International which, as it is situated on the west side of Edinburgh, is relatively close to Glasgow.
There are also several smaller, domestic and private airports around the city. All of the international airports are easily accessibly by public transport, with GLA and EDI directly linked by a bus routes from the main bus station, and a direct rail connection to PIK from Glasgow Central Station. A plan to provide a direct rail link to Glasgow International was dropped with the cancelling of the Glasgow Airport Rail Link in ,  though the Scottish Government is actively, as of [update] , considering alternative rail-based surface-access possibilities.
Glasgow is known for its tenements ; the red and blond sandstone buildings are some of the most recognisable features of the city. Tenements are commonly bought by a wide range of social types and are favoured for their large rooms, high ceilings and original period features. Like many cities in the UK, Glasgow witnessed the construction of high-rise housing in tower blocks in the s, along with large overspill estates on the periphery of the city, in areas like Pollok , Nitshill , Castlemilk , Easterhouse , Milton and Drumchapel.
Efforts to improve this housing situation, most successfully with the City Improvement Trust in the late 19th century, cleared the slums of the old town areas such as the Trongate , High Street and Glasgow Cross. The policy of tenement demolition is now considered to have been short-sighted, wasteful and largely unsuccessful. The hospital is built on the site of the former Southern General Hospital and opened at the end of April There is also an emergency telephone service provided by NHS 24 and hour access to general practitioners through out of hours centres.
Paramedic services are provided by the Scottish Ambulance Service and supported by voluntary bodies like the St. A strong teaching tradition is maintained between the city's main hospitals and the University of Glasgow Medical School. All pharmacies provide a wide range of services including minor ailment advice, emergency hormonal contraception, public health advice, some provide oxygen and needle exchange.
There are private clinics and hospitals at the Nuffield in the west end and Ross Hall in the south side of the city. There are also three further education colleges in the city: In Glasgow had 53, full-time students aged 18—74 resident in the city during term time, more than any other city in Scotland and the fifth-largest in the United Kingdom outside London. Outdoor Education facilities are provided by the city council at the Blairvadach Centre, near Helensburgh.
Jordanhill School is operated directly by the Scottish Government. Glasgow also has a number of Independent schools , including Hutchesons' Grammar School founded in and one of the oldest school institutions in Britain, and others such as Craigholme School , Fernhill School , Glasgow Academy , Kelvinside Academy , St. The world's first international football match was held in at the West of Scotland Cricket Club 's Hamilton Crescent ground in the Partick area of the city.
The match, between Scotland and England finished 0—0. Glasgow is one of only four cities along with Liverpool in , Madrid in , and and Milan in to have had two football teams in European finals in the same season: Rangers were the first football club from the United Kingdom to reach a European final, doing so in They have also won more domestic top tier league titles than any other football club in the world. Celtic were the first non-Latin club to win the European Cup, under the management of Jock Stein in , before Manchester United the following year.
Celtic also went on to reach another European Cup Final in , losing to Feyenoord , and also the final of the UEFA Cup in , where they lost an enthralling match which finished 3—2 to Portuguese club Porto. Rangers also reached the final of the same competition in , where they lost to Zenit Saint Petersburg of Russia. Hampden Park , which is Scotland's national football stadium, holds the European record for attendance at a football match: Celtic Park 60, seats is located in the east end of Glasgow, and Ibrox Stadium 50, seats on the south side.
Glasgow has three professional football clubs: Celtic, Rangers, and Partick Thistle. Prior to this, Glasgow had two other professional teams: Clyde since moved to Cumbernauld and Third Lanark liquidated in , plus three others active in the league in the 19th century: Thistle , Cowlairs , Northern and Linthouse. The history of football in the city, as well as the status of the Old Firm , attracts many visitors to football matches in the city throughout the season. The competition is now played for by the youth sides of the five teams. Glasgow is also home to five women's football teams.
Currently, Glasgow City F. This event is inspired by the ancient Gaelic festival of Beltane which marked the beginning of summer. Festivals — Early August for the whole month, International Edinburgh Festival formal arts events, music, theatre, opera etc , and the loony Fringe Festival, a massive, world beating celebration of all aspects of the arts, trad to mad with acts from all over the world. Crap Days Out from the Telegraph newspaper Quote: And the council actually charges you to enter it. Tickets can be bought from the venues or Tourist office. Hotels in the UK generally are expensive and Edinburgh is no exception.
There are also a fair number of luxury apartments in Edinburgh for rent of course. We stayed in a charming Bed and Breakfast run by an English couple beside the strange little Bruntsfield golf links see on map below. Strange because the links is not only reputed to be the oldest in the world older than St Andrews but hires clubs and balls to anyone and is surrounded by little Georgian terraces or apartments.
So not only would a golf ball occasionally pay a sudden visit through a window, but locals walked their dogs through the links and the dogs would frequently rush off and steal balls. It was a hoot, mon. The Grassmarket area has some good restaurants, bars and clubs, but beware the tourist traps and stag party hang-outs. For budget eating try the frequently excellent pub food in pedestrianised Rose St, parallel to Princes St.